Coagulation-Flocculation

 

We classify water impurities in three categories: suspended solids, colloidal particles (less than 1 micron) and dissolved substances (less than several nanometers).

The coagulation-flocculation processes facilitate the removal of suspended solids (SS) and colloidal particles.

Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal and other suspended solid particles brought about by the addition of a chemical reagent called as coagulant.

Flocculation is the agglomeration of destabilized particles into microfloc and after into bulky floccules which can be settled called floc. The addition of another reagent called flocculant or a flocculant aid may promote the formation of the floc.

The factors, which can promote the coagulation-flocculation, are the velocity gradient, the time, and the pH. The time and the velocity gradient are important to increase the probability of the particles to come together. Moreover the pH is a prominent factor in the removal of colloids.

 

Our Products Includes:

Solid Contact Clarifier

 

Here settled sludge is recirculated and mixed with the incoming stream in such a way that the already settled particles form a nuclei for particle growth through flocculation created by controlled hydraulic movement of the inflow stream entering the Clarifier unit. To meet this purpose, this unit combines flash mixing, flocculation and sedimentation into a single unit for effective removal of suspended solids and other associated impurities. Chemical conditioning of inflow stream is done at flash mixing and flocculation zone of the Clarifier.

 

The major advantage of Solid Contact Clarifier is its smaller footprint with less than 5-ppm turbidity on most applications.

Previously formed precipitates act as unclear or to speed the reactions between the incoming raw water and treatment chemicals. Whereby making optimum use of chemicals.

Sludge particles settle at a faster rate than the rise in the clarification zone thereby achieving a clean separation between the particles the rising water.

The desired overflow clarity is achieved at high up-flow rates by optimum placement of the overflow launders as water up-flow remains vertical with minimum disturbance to solids settling.

The result is high quality clear effluent.

 

Tube Clarifiers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UV disinfection Systems

 

A greater public awareness of contamination in water supplies has occurred in recent years which has resulted in the successful application of alternative methods of treatment, like UV treatment.

Light is electromagnetic radiation, or radiant energy traveling in the form of waves. UV energy is found in the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and x-rays and can best be described as invisible radiation. The energy employed for UV water treatment is further categorized into two primary levels measured as wavelengths - 254 nm and 185 nm, where nm = 1/1000 of a micron. For disinfection and ozone destruction applications, the 254nm wavelength is utilized. For TOC reduction and chlorine destruction applications a unique wavelength.

Hrushikesh UV systems feature low pressure mercury discharge lamps. The lamps are constructed with a special quartz envelope material that looks like glass, but is actually a discriminating filter. This allows predominantly 254 nm or 185 nm UV energy to be transmitted into a water stream as it flows through the UV system's treatment chamber.

The primary uses of UV for water treatment are: Disinfection, TOC Reduction, Ozone Destruction and Chlorine Destruction.

Disinfection: All living organisms contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA provides the mechanism for all functions needed to sustain life.

Hrushikesh UV systems emit UV light that penetrates the outer cell membrane of microorganisms, passes through the cell body, reaches the DNA and alters the genetic material. The microorganism is thereby destroyed in a non-chemical manner and is unable to reproduce.

TOC Reduction: In ultrapure water systems, UV systems are used for the effective reduction of organics, commonly referred to as TOC (total oxidizable carbon).

The 185 nm wavelength of UV light is used for TOC reduction, which is shorter and consequently more powerful than the 254 nm wavelength. UV energy promotes hydroxial free radicals in varying degrees of photochemical excitement. These hydroxyl (OH-) free radicals break various chemical bonds of organics, which in turn produce chain reactions, oxidizing most organics into CO2 and H2O - the basic building blocks of all organic compounds. Both TOC reduction and microbial destruction occur with the use of Aquafine 185 nm UV systems. Hrushikesh TOC Reduction Units are capable of achieving <1 ppb TOC Specification.
 

Ozone Destruction: In some water treatment applications, ozone is applied to the water to oxidize trace organics, or to disinfect the piping and distribution system, but residual ozone is often left behind. Hrushikesh ozone destruction units add UV energy to ozone, catalyzing the ozone into harmless oxygen. Hrushikesh ozone destruction units have Ozone destruction capability to 20 ppb.
 

Chlorine Destruction: UV radiation can effectively eliminate residual chlorine/chloramine present in water. Research studies in this area were triggered by the recognition of the undesirable, negative effects of conventional dechlorination technologies such as activated carbon filtration and sodium metabisulfite injection. Both of these processes have significant inherent drawbacks. Carbon beds are excellent breeding grounds for bacteria to thrive and proliferate. Chemical addition involves the introduction of an added substance and is therefore undesirable.
As an alternative to use of chemicals and activated carbon beds, UV technology can be utilized to destroy chlorine/chloramine, thereby eliminating the need for chemical handling, bacteria problems, etc. Research studies have demonstrated conclusively the Free Chlorine residuals up to 1.0 ppm and Chloramine residuals up to 2.0 ppm can be successfully destroyed by the application of UV radiation.

 

Advantages of UV Systems

With experience in industries, Hrushikesh Water Sciences has an overall understanding of the design and construction of water systems for these applications, as well as in unique applications.
 

Following models are available:

Lo-Flow Economy (HLFE) - 0.2 to 9.1 m3/hr

These units provide a compact design and economical ultraviolet water treatment for low-flow applications, such as laboratory and medical facility water, pharmaceutical make-up processes, final electronic component rinsing and recirculation loops, to name a few. The little change in water temperature, even after prolonged periods of no water flow, makes them ideal for such applications as water for vending machines. These models may also be configured for TOC reduction or ozone destruction applications found in high purity or ultra pure water processes. These are available with flow rates ranging from 0.2 to 9.1 m3/hr.

In-Door (HID) - 9 to 118 m3/hr

The In-Door Series features a compact design that incorporates a UV treatment chamber with an electrical cabinet that contains all electrical components and instrumentation. These compact, UV models are engineered for indoor installations and controlled operating environments. The In-Door series is used in laboratory, hospital, and hotel installations, as well as cosmetic, pharmaceutical and semiconductor manufacturing processes. UV disinfection flow rates for the standard In-Door models range from 9 to 118 m3/hr, with TOC reduction and ozone destruction configurations also available.

Out-Door (HOD)- 2 to 118 m3/hr

These Models feature a UV treatment chamber connected by a flexible, liquid-tight conduit to a separate electrical control panel. The cabinet is rated IP 67, making it suitable for many harsh indoor and outdoor environmental conditions. UV disinfection flow rates for these models range from 2 to 118 m3/hr, with TOC reduction and ozone destruction configurations also available.

 

 

Sanitary Design Model (HSD)- 2 to 118 m3/hr

UV models are for highly critical industrial water treatment systems. Developed for use in biopharmaceutical applications, this series is perfect for any pure water application with stringent quality or performance criteria. With different models ranging from 2 to 118 m3/hr can serve most any medium flow rate process. This also comes standard with completely sanitary inlet/outlet connections (flanges are optional) and an ingenious sanitary ferrule endplate design that replaces more common bolted and threaded designs. A straight drain and optional stainless steel compression nuts for hot water sanitization or steam sterilization round out the product offering.

 

FEATURES AND OPTIONS

 

. Capacities listed are for disinfection only. For other applications, contact us.
. Capacities are based after 9,000 hours of operation with a coefficient of absorption of 0.06 at 254nm.
. UV Dosage:  > 30,000-Microwatt Seconds/cm2
. Optional Ra 15 (240 grit) Internal Finish
. Standard Operating Pressure (6 bar)
. Optional Running Time Indicator
. 316-L Stainless Steel Treatment Chamber
. Optional 4-20 mA Output Signal
. 304 Stainless Steel Cabinet Housing
. Optional Temperature Safety Control
. 240 VAC, 50 Hz Electrical Circuit
. Optional Lamp Out Alert Circuit
. Optional Voltage Stabilizer
 . Optional UV Intensity Display

Specifications are subject to change without notice. Optional features shown are available at an additional charge.

 

Water filtration for industrial water, wastewater and water recyling processes

 

Sand Filter

Sand filtration is frequently used and very robust method to remove suspended solids from water. The filtration medium consists of a multiple layer of high silica sand with a variety in size and specific gravity.  Sand filters can be supplied in different sizes and materials both hand operated or fully automatically. A special application of a sand filter is the removal of iron in surface and ground or well water. An iron removal installation consists of a aeration to oxidise and precipitate the iron and manganese, followed by removal of the precipitated particles with the sand filter. During service Water enters from the top, travels through the filtering media & goes out from the bottom. The suspended solids in the water get trapped in the filter & we get clean clear water at the outlet. This accumulated dirt (suspended solids) needs to be removed otherwise the filter will get choked & will result in less treatment flow, damage to the filter, damage to the pump, etc. The cleaning operation of the filter is called Backwash. This backwash operation needs to done once the differential pressure across the filter reaches 0.8 kg/cm2 or 24 hours of service cycle whichever is earlier. 

FRP Body with Multi-port valve Filtration Systems:Flow range - 1 m3/hour to 16 m3/hour. Carbon steel (Epoxy-coated) Body with C.I. valves Filtration Systems:Flow range - 7 m3/hour to 250 m3/hour.

 

 

 

Duel Media Filter

 

 

During service Water enters from the top, travels through the filtering media & goes out from the bottom. The suspended solids in the water get trapped in the filter & we get clean clear water at the outlet. This accumulated dirt (suspended solids) needs to be removed otherwise the filter will get choked & will result in less treatment flow, damage to the filter, damage to the pump, etc. The cleaning operation of the filter is called Backwash. This backwash operation needs to done once the differential pressure across the filter reaches 0.8 kg/cm2 or 24 hours of service cycle whichever is earlier. FRP Body with Multi-port valve Dual Media Filtration Systems:Flow range - 1 m3/hour to 16 m3/hour. Carbon steel (Epoxy-coated) Body with C.I. valves Dual Media Filtration Systems:Flow range - 7 m3/hour to 250 m3/hour.

 

 

 

 

 


 

About Activated carbon 

 

Ancient civilizations knew the benefites of charred coal for improving the quality of drinking water. Today also we rely on the same principle and being used in numerous applications, is activated carbon.

Activated carbon (AC) filtration is most effective in removing organic contaminants from water. Organic substances are composed of two basic elements, carbon and hydrogen. Because organic chemicals are often responsible for taste, odor, and color problems, AC filtration can generally be used to improve aesthetically objectional water. AC filtration will also remove chlorine. AC filtration is recognized by the Water Quality Association as an acceptable method to maintain certain drinking water contaminants within the limits

 

Activated carbon applications